Instructions
 
The Cryptograph is a puzzle, where each letter stands for another letter.
The picture is a clue, either the source or the subject of the quotation. 
NB:  This page is not interactive.
 
What if you don't recognize the person in the picture? 
This makes the puzzle more difficult, yet, when solved, more satisfying.
Here are some tips. 
1. An apostrophe indicates either possession (e.g., MOTHER'S) or contraction (e.g., DON'T). A single letter following an apostrophe is usually "S" or "T" (rarely, "D"). If you choose "T", the letter before the apostrophe must be "N".

2. A one-letter word is either "I" or "A".

3. With two-letter words, look at the vowels. "A" or "I" can start a two-letter word, but never end it. "E" can end a two-letter word, but never start one. "O" can both start and end a two-letter word. "U" is either "US" or "UP".

4. Three-letter words often end with "E": "THE" and "ARE"; or start with "A": "AND" and "ARE"; or have "A" in the middle: "WAS", "CAN", "HAS", and "HAD".

5. "E" is the most common letter in the language. It will end a lot of long words, or come as the second to the last letter, like "-ED", "-EN", and "-ER".

6. Double letters, if they are vowels, are "-EE" and "-OO", never "-AA", "II", "-UU" (or almost never, unless you are an AARDVARK in HAWAII VACUUMING).

7. A four-letter word that begins and ends with the same letter is often "THAT".

These tips will help you solve many of our puzzles. Enjoy them.
-Bob Johnson and Mary Margolies 
 
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